The Islamic Army Of Frederick II

Archeologists and historians are shedding new light on how medieval Holy Roman emperor Frederick II created an Islamic army to attack the pope. The German Historical Institute in Rome – together with universities of Foggia (Italy), Trier and Kiel (both in Germany) are investigating the southern Italian city of Lucera which, in the 13th century, was a major centre of Islamic culture and learning– and the cause of considerable papal anger.
The story started in 1222 when emperor Frederick II, faced with a Muslim rebellion in Sicily, started deporting Sicilian Muslims to the Lucera area of south-east Italy. By 1244, he had transferred up to 20,000 people – virtually entire Muslim population of Sicily. However, in order to keep the deportees loyal, he treated them well in their new homes and allowed mosques and an Islamic university to be built, and gave them land.
The pope – just 130 miles to the north-west – was furious and declared Frederick a heretic.  Soon war was raging between emperor and pope – and Frederick used his muslim Sicilian deportees as a purpose – made army to secure initial victory. Indeed it is probable that creating a Muslim army against the pope had been the ulterior motive behind the deportation in the first place.
The investigations so far suggest that Frederick settled his Sicilian Muslims in and around the city of Lucera – not inside town’s vast castle as had been thought until now. Settling them around the city would almost certainly have necessitated the forced removal of some of the pre-existing Christian communities, including the local bishop – a process which angered the pope still further.

Moorish Prince

– Finely rendered high profile representation of a Moorish Prince in Orientalist style.
– Signed in ornate Orientalist script at top.
– Bronzed iron. 15 x 24 inches, 25 lbs.
– Suspension loop on verso.
– On sale at: $4450
– Unknown Artist

WithOut Peer

My one, my soul without peer,
Most beautiful of all!
Rising like the morning star
At the start of a happy year.
Shining bright, fair of skin,
Lovely the look of her eyes,
Sweet the speech of her lips,
She has not a word too much.
Upright neck, shining breast,
Hair true Lapis Lazuli;
Arms surpassing gold,
Fingers like lotus buds.
Heavy thighs, narrow waist,
Her legs parade her beauty;
With graceful step she treads the ground,
Captures my heart by her movements.
She causes all men’s necks
To turn about to see her;
Joy has he whom she embraces,
When she steps outside she seems like the Sun!

Photo by: Doctor-Honesty
Photo title: I Adore You
Description: Unedited Photo-shoot of a 10 inch statue of the God Osiris and his wife Isis.

Poem Name: WithOut Peer
Description: Ancient Egyptian Love Poem
Poem provided by: CZ

First Flight With The Wright Brothers

National Aviation Day, a holiday established by president Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939 to celebrate developments in aviation. The date selected was the birth date of aviation pioneer Orville Wright, who, along with his older brother Wilbur, is credited with inventing and building the world’s first practical fixed-wing aircraft and making the first controlled, powered and sustained flight more than a hundred years ago.

1st Photo: Wilbur Wright pilots a full-size glider down the steep slope of Big Kill Devil Hill in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, on October 10, 1902. This model was the third iteration of the Wright brothers’ early gliders, equipped with wings that would warp to steer, a rear vertical rudder, and a forward elevator. (Library of Congress)

To view the remaining 17 photo’s: The Atlantic

The Mystery Of The Cocaine Mummies

Partial Transcript Below:

In the 21st dynasty of the Pharaos, 3,000 years ago, there took place one night at a temple, the funeral of Henut Taui – the Lady of the Two lands.

Compared to the great rulers of Egypt, her burial was a modest affair. But just like the Pharaos, she too was mummified, and her body placed in the depths of a desert tomb, in the belief it would give her immortality.

German scientist, Dr Svetla Balabanova, made a discovery which was to baffle Egyptologists, and call into question whole areas of science and archeology to chemistry and botany.

She discovered that the body of Henut Taui contained large quantities of cocaine and nicotine. The surprise was not just that the ancient Egyptians had taken drugs, but that these drugs come from tobacco and coca, plants completly unknown outside the Americas, unheard of until Sir Walter Raleigh introduced smoking from the New World, or until cocaine was imported in the Victorian era.

It was seemingly impossible for the ancient Egyptians to get hold of these substances.

For thousands of years people in the Andes have been chewing coca leaves, to get out the cocaine with it’s stimulant, anaesthetic and euphoric properties. There are actually species of the coca family which grow in Africa, but only the South American species has ever been shown to contain the drug.

DR SVETLA BALABANOVA – Institute of Forensic Medicine, Ulm: 
“The cocaine of course remains an open question. It’s a mystery – it’s completely unclear how cocaine could get into Africa. On the other hand, we know there were trade relationships long before Columbus, and it’s conceivable that the coca plant had been imported into Egypt even then.”

Was it possible that coca – a plant from South America had been finding it’s way to Egypt 3,000 years ago?

If the cocaine found in mummies could not be explained by contamination, or fake mummies or by Egyptian plants containing it, there appeared to be only one remaining possibility… An international drug trade who’s links extended all the way to the Americas.

But on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, where the moving current of the Gulf Stream arrives in Mexico directly from the west coast of Africa, there is a professionally-employed anthropologist who does seriously beleive in such possibilities.

PROF ALICE KEHOE – Anthropologist, Marquette University: 
“I think there is good evidence that there was both trans-atlantic and trans-pacific travel before Columbus.”

But the idea that the ability of the ancients to cross the oceans might have been underestimated continues to be quietly whispered about. Over the years evidence has grown which suggests it might be time to look again at such voyages. To imagine that the Egyptians, who apparently only sailed up and down the Nile or into the Red Sea, might get as far as the Americas perhaps sounds fantastical. But in science, what is one day thought absurd, can next day become accepted as fact.

[Picture of a Norse settlement in Newfoundland]

One senior academic thinks it’s important to remember that before the discovery of this Norse settlement in Newfoundland in 1965 theories about Viking voyages to America were dismissed as nonsense.

PROF MARTIN BERNAL – Historian, Cornell University: 
“What we’ve seen is a shift from the idea of Viking landings in America being seen as completely fantastic or partisan, to being accepted by every scholar in the field.”

The fact that evidence of the Viking crossings was hidden has encouraged Martin Bernal to contemplate even earlier voyages that are likewise dismissed as impossible.

PROF MARTIN BERNAL – Historian, Cornell University: 
“I have no reason to doubt that there were others – but what they were, and how much influence they had on American society is open to question. But that trans-oceanic voyages are possible – or were possible – seems to me to be overwhelmingly likely.”

Yet discovery of minute strands of silk found in the hair of a mummy from Luxor could suggest the trade stretching from Egypt to the Pacific. For silk at this time was only known to come from China.

PROF MARTIN BERNAL – Historian, Cornell University: 
“We’re getting more and more evidence of world trade at an earlier stage. You have the Chinese silk definitely arriving in Egypt by 1000BC. I think modern scholars have a tendency to believe rigidly in progress and the idea that you could only have a worldwide trading network from the 18th century onwards, is our temporal arrogance – that it’s only modern people that can do these things.”

The evidence for ancient trade with America is limited, and most of it is disputed, but it can’t be completely ruled out as explaining the apparent impossibility of Balabanova’s results, results that at first seemed so absurd many thought they would be explained away by a simple story of a botch-up in a lab, results that still without firm explanation continue to crop up in unexpected places.

For in Manchester, the mummies under the care of Rosalie David, the Egyptologist once so sure that Balabanova had made a mistake, produced some odd results of their own.

ROSALIE DAVID – Keeper of Egyptology, Manchester Museum: 
“We’ve received results back from the tests on our mummy tissue samples and two of the samples and the one hair sample both have evidence of nicotine in them. I’m really very surprised at this.”

DR SVETLA BALABANOVA – Institute of Forensic Medicine, Ulm: 
“The results of the tests on the Manchester mummies have made me very happy after all these years of being accuesed of false results and contaminated results, so I was delighted to hear nicotine had been found in these mummies, and very, very happy to have this enormous confirmation of my work.”

The tale of Henut Taui shows that in science facts can be rejected if they don’t fit with our beleifs while what is believed proven, may actually be uncertain.

Little wonder then, that a story that began with one scientist, a few mummies and some routine tests, in no time at all could upset whole areas of knowledge we thought we could take for granted.

Harun Al-Rashid Receiving A Delegation Of Charlemagne In Baghdad

Harun al-Rashid (Arabic: هارون الرشيد‎}; Hārūn ar-Rashīd) (17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph.

His surnametranslates to “the Just”, “the Upright”, or “the Rightly-Guided”. Al-Rashid ruled from 786 to 809, during the peak of the Islamic Golden Age.

His time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and musicalso flourished significantly during his reign. He established the legendary library Bayt al-Hikma (“House of Wisdom”) in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, and during his rule Baghdad began to flourish as a center of knowledge, culture and trade.

Charlemagne (/ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn/; 2 April 742/747/748 – 28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (German: Karl der Große; Latin: Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, the King of Italy from 774, and from 800 the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state he founded is called the Carolingian Empire.

The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne became king in 768 following the death of his father. He was initially co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman’s sudden death in 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Charlemagne continued his father’s policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy, and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain.

He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death, at times leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden.

Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned “emperor” by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St. Peter’s Basilica.

Called the “Father of Europe” (pater Europae), Charlemagne united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of cultural and intellectual activity within the Catholic Church. Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne’s empire.

Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for just over thirteen years. He was laid to rest in his imperial capital of Aachen in what is today Germany. His son Louis the Pious succeeded him.

Artist: Julius Köckert
Date: 1864
Medium: Oil on Canvas
Location: Maximilianeum Foundation, Munich, Germany
Info via: Wikipedia
Info provided by: CZ

The Great Mogul

The Great Mogul

In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell to the superior mobility and firepower of the Mughals. The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralized, and uniform rule. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status. The Mughal state’s economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency, caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.

The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India’s economic expansion, resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture. Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India. As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to control their own affairs.

The Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turko-Mongols from modern-day Uzbekistan, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan (through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled much of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Bengal in the east to Kabul & Sindh in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south. Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million (quarter of the world’s population), over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometres (1.2 million square miles).

The “classic period” of the empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, India enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior. He also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but they were subdued by Akbar. Most Mughal emperors were Muslims. However Akbar in the latter part of his life, and Jahangir, were followers of a new religion called Deen-i-Ilahi, as recorded in historical books like Ain-e-Akbari & Dabestan-e Mazaheb.

The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, was the golden age of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the most famous of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and theLahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji Bhosale. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to more than 1.25 million square miles, ruling over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 1/4th of the world’s population, with a combined GDP of over $90 billion. [Wikipedia]

Oil Painting by American Artist: Edwin Lord Weeks
Description: Great Mogul And His Court Returning From The Great Mosque At Delhi India

A Short History Of Bio-Chemical Weapons

A Short History Of Bio-Chemical Weapons

The U.S. and its allies have long been complicit in the manufacturing and use of biological and chemical weapons, yet has targeted other countries for alleged possession and use of these same weapons. This partial chronology is intended as a starting point for critical research and analysis of bio-chemical weaponry and foreign policy.
400s B.C.: Spartan Greeks use sulfur fumes against enemy soldiers.

256 A.D.: Sasanian Persian Empire may have used toxic smoke against Roman soldiers in a tunnel in modern-day Syria.

1346: Tatars catapult plague-infected corpses into Italian trade settlement in Crimea.

1500s: Spanish conquistadors use biological warfare used against Indigenous peoples in the Americas.

1763: British Gen. Jeffrey Amherst advocates use of smallpox blankets against Native peoples during Pontiac’s Rebellion. Smallpox blankets given to Native delegates during talks at Fort Pitt.

1789: Smallpox ravages Australian Indigenous communities in New South Wales; debate persists whether the British deliberately introduced it.

1800s: Smallpox, measles, and other diseases ravage Native American and First Nation communities; U.S. and British/Canadian officials use quarantine techniques to isolate diseases in white communities, but not in Native villages.

1845: British attack Maori resisters with poison gas in Battle of Ohaeawai, Aotearoa/New Zealand.

1907: Hague Convention outlaws chemical weapons; U.S. does not participate.

1914-18: World War I begins; Germans introduce chlorine gas at Second Battle of Ypres. Poison gas such as mustard gas and chlorine gas produces 85,000 deaths, 1,200,000 injuries on both sides.

1919-21: Poison gas used in Russian civil war, against rebels by the Bolsheviks, and against Bolsheviks by the Royal Air Force.

1920s: Spanish and French forces use mustard gas against Berber rebels in Spanish Morocco. Britain proposes use of chemical weapons in Iraq “as an experiment” against Arab and Kurdish rebels seeking independence; Winston Churchill “strongly” backs the proposed “use of poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes,” which was apparently not carried out.

1928: The Geneva Protocol (first signed in 1925) by the League of Nations prohibits gas and bacteriological warfare; most countries that ratify it prohibit only the first use of such weapons.

1935: Italy begins conquest of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), using mustard gas.

1937: Japan invades China, widely uses chemical weapons in war to conquer China, and used biological weapons such as plague-carrying fleas.

1939: World War II begins; both sides decide not to use bio-chemical arms in large-scale attacks, due to fears of retaliation in kind.

1941: U.S. enters World War II; President Roosevelt pledges U.S. will not be first to use bio-chemical weapons.

1942: German forces may have used poison gas against Soviet resisters in tunnels during the Battle of Kerch in Crimea.

1943: U.S. ship damaged by German bombing raid on Bari, Italy, leaks mustard gas, killing 1,000.

1945: When concentration camps are liberated, inmates report that Germans have used Zyklon-B in the extermination of civilians. Japanese military discovered to have conducted biological warfare experiments on POWs, killing 3000. U.S. shields officers in charge from war crimes trials, in return for data. Soviets take over German nerve gas facility in Potsdam. The Nazis had stockpiles of nerve gas against which the Allies had no defenses, and had also been working on blood agents.

1947: U.S. possesses germ warfare weapons; President Truman withdraws Geneva Protocol from Senate consideration.

1949: U.S. dismisses Soviet trials of Japanese for germ warfare as “propaganda.” Army begins secret tests of biological agents in U.S. cities.

1950: Korean War begins; North Korea and China accuse U.S. of germ warfare–charges never proven. San Francisco disease outbreak matches Army bacteria used on city.

1951: African-Americans exposed to potentially fatal simulant in Virginia test of race-specific fungal weapons.

1952: German chemical weapons researcher Walter Schreiber, working in Texas, exposed as a perpetrator of concentration camp experiments, and flees to Argentina.

1954: Fort Detrick in Maryland initiates Operation Whitecoat to research the effects of biological agents on soliders and conscientious objector volunteers; program lasts until 1973.

1956: Army manual explicitly states that bio-chemical warfare is not banned. Rep. Gerald Ford wins policy change to give U.S. military “first strike” authority on chemical arms.

1959: House resolution against first use of bio-chemical weapons is defeated.

1961: Kennedy Administration begins hike of chemical weapons spending from $75 million to more than $330 million.

1962: Chemical weapons loaded on U.S. planes during Cuban missile crisis.

1963-66: US, UK and Israel accuse Egypt of using chemical weapons during its intervention in North Yemen’s civil war.

1966: Army germ warfare experiment in New York subway system.

1968: Pentagon asks for the chance to use some of its arsenal against protesters to demonstrate the “efficacy” of the chemicals. Maj. Gen. J.B. Medaris says, “By using gas in civil situations, we accomplish two purposes: controlling crowds and also educating people on gas. Now, everybody is being called savage if he just talks about it. But nerve gas is the only way I know of to sort out the guys in white hats from the ones in black hats without killing any of them.”

1969: Utah chemical weapons accident kills thousands of sheep; President Nixon declares U.S. moratorium on chemical weapons production and biological weapons possession. U.N. General Assembly bans use of herbicides (plant killers) and tear gasses in warfare; U.S. one of three opposing votes. U.S. forces cause tear gas fatalities in Vietnamese guerrilla tunnels, and widely use napalm (jellied gasoline that stick to skin).

1971: U.S. ends direct use of herbicides such as Agent Orange; had spread over Indochinese forests, and destroyed at least six percent of South Vietnamese cropland, enough to feed 600,000 people for a year. Diseases and birth defects affected Vietnamese civilians and U.S. veterans. White phosphorus grenades also used against South Vietnamese rebels. U.S. intelligence gives swine-flu virus to anti-Castro Cuban paramilitary group, which lands it on Cuba’s southern coast (according to 1977 newspaper reports).

1972: Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention. Cuba accuses CIA of instilling swine fever virus that leads to death of 500,000 hogs.

1974: U.S. finally ratifies 1928 Geneva Protocol.

1975: Indonesia annexes East Timor; planes spread herbicides on croplands.

1978: Bulgarian secret service uses ricin in umbrella tip to assassinate Bulgarian dissident in London.

1979: Anthrax leak from Soviet biological weapons lab kills 60 near in the Ural Mountains of Russia, near Sverdlovsk. Washington Post reports on U.S. program against Cuban agriculture since 1962, including CIA biological warfare component. White government of Rhodesia contaminates Africans with anthrax in the last stages of the Zimbabwe independence war, resulting in 10,000 cases, 182 of them fatal.

1980: U.S. intelligence officials allege Soviet chemical use in Afghanistan, while admitting “no confirmation.” Congress approves nerve gas facility in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Iraq begins eight-year war with U.S. arch-enemy Iran; both sides use chemical weapons in the war.

1981: U.S. accuses Vietnam and allies of using mycotoxins (fungal poisons) in Laos and Cambodia. Some refugees report casualties in Laos; one analysis reveals “yellow rain” as bee feces, but questions remained.

1984: U.N. confirms Iraq using mustard and nerve gasses against Iranian “human wave” attacks in border war, killing up to 100,000 Iranians; State Department issues mild condemnation, yet restores diplomatic relations with Iraq, and opposes U.N. action against Iraq. Bhopal fertilizer plant accident in India kills 2,000; shows risks of chemical plants being damaged in warfare. President Reagan orders over a half-million M55 rockets retooled so they contain high-yield explosives as well as VX gas. (The Army later claimed that many of these rockets were “unstable” and leaking nerve gas.)

1985: U.S. resumes open-air testing of biological agents. U.S. firms begin supplying Iraq with numerous biological agents for a four-year period (according to a 1994 Senate report).

1986: U.S. resumes open-air testing of biological agents.

1987: Senate ties in three votes on resuming production of chemical weapons; Vice President Bush breaks all three ties in favor of resumption.

1988: Iraq uses chemical weapons against Kurdish minority rebels and civilians in Halabjah, killing at least 5,000. U.S. continues to maintain agricultural credits with Iraq; President Reagan blocks congressional sanctions against Iraq.

1989: Paris conference of 149 nations condemns chemical weapons, urges quick ban to emerge from Geneva treaty negotiations; U.S. revealed to plan poison gas production even after treaty signed.

1990: U.S., Soviets pledge to reduce chemical weapons stockpiles to 20 percent of current U.S. supply by 2002, and to eliminate poison gas weapons when all nations have signed future Geneva treaty. Israel admits possession of chemical weapons; Iraq threatens to use chemical weapons on Israel if it is attacked.

1991: U.S. and Coalition forces invade Kuwait and Iraq in the Gulf War; Iraq possesses chemical weapons but does not use them. At least 28 alleged bio-chemical production or storage sites are bombed in Iraq during the Gulf War, including fertilizer and other civilian plants. CNN reports “green flames” from one chemical plant, and the deaths of 50 Iraqi troops from anthrax after air strike on another site. New York Times quotes Soviet chemical weapons commander that air strikes on Iraqi chemical weapons would have “little effect beyond neighboring villages,” but that strikes on biological weapons could spread disease “to adjoining countries.” Czechoslovak chemical warfare unit detects sarin nerve gas after air strikes on Iraqi chemical weapons facilities. Egyptian doctor reports outbreak of “strange disease” inside Iraq. After the war, U.S. troops use explosives in Khamisiya to destroy Iraqi chemical weapons storage bunkers.

1992: Reports intensify of U.S. and Coalition veterans of Gulf War developing health problems, involving a variety of symptoms, collectively called Gulf War Syndrome. U.N. sanctions intensify civilian health crisis inside Iraq, making identification of similar symptoms potentially difficult. Two members of anti-government Minnesota Patriots’ Council arrested for plan to use ricin chemical against law enforcement officer.

1993: President Clinton continues intermittent bombing and missile raids against Iraqi facilities; U.N. inspectors step up program to dismantle Iraqi weapons. U.S. signs U.N. Chemical Weapons Convention, though approval later blocked in Senate.

1994: Russian forces extensively use white phosphorus shells as incendiary weapons in Chechnya.

1994-95: Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo launches deadly sarin nerve gas attacks on the Matsumoto community and on the Tokyo subway system.

1996: Congressional hearings on Gulf War Syndrome focuses on Iraqi storage bunker destruction, rather than other possible causes, and does not call for international investigation of symptoms among Iraqis. CIA investigation asserts that U.S. bombing of chemical weapons sites did not contaminate population.

1997: Cuba accuses U.S. of spraying crops with biological agents. Iraq expels U.S. citizens in U.N. inspection teams, which are allowed to continue work without Americans, but choose to evacuate all inspectors. U.S. mobilizes for military action. Senate act implements Chemical Weapons Convention, with a provision that “the President may deny a request to inspect any facility” on national security grounds.

1998: Chief UN weapons inspector Richard Butler orders inspectors out of Iraq just prior to U.S. bombing. In Operation Desert Fox, Clinton again bombs alleged Iraqi bio-chemical weapons sites, after Iraq questions role of American U.N. inspector, and restricts inspector access to presidential properties and security. U.S. launches missile attack on pharmaceutical plant in Sudan that it alleges produces nerve gas agents–a claim disputed by most of the international community.

1998-99: Series of anthrax hoaxes against U.S. media and government targetss. Ex-Aryan Nations member Larry Wayne Harris carries out anthrax hoax to dramatize warning of alleged “Iraqi threat.” Three members of Republic of Texas militia group arrested for intention to use anthrax and other biological agents against public officials. Upsurge in anthrax hoaxes against abortion clinics.

1999: NATO bombs Yugoslavia in Kosovo Crisis, triggering massive Serbian expulsion of ethnic Albanians. NATO bombers hit a Serbian petrochemical plant in Pancevo, sending a toxic cloud with 2,000 tons of chemicals over the city, and chemicals were released in other bombings of industrial plants.

2000: “Topoff Exercise” involving federal and state authorities fails to cope with simulated chemical, biological and nuclear attacks in three widely separated metropolitan areas.

2001: U.S. withdraws from the first round of Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention (BTWC), crippling international efforts to establish global measures against biological weapons. In wake of September 11 attacks, anthrax spores sent by mail to multiple political and media targets around the U.S., resulting in anthrax exposures, infections, and at least 5 deaths. Real anthrax attacks accompanied by increase in anthrax hoaxes by “Army of God” and other groups and individuals.

2002: Russian police use chemical gas against Chechen rebels holding hostages in Moscow theater; 42 rebels and 120 hostages died from the gas raid. Bush Administration renews allegations that Iraq possesses biochemical weapons (drawing on allegations by Iraqi exiles), reluctantly acquiesces in return of United Nations weapons inspectors (after four years of absence) to prove or disprove the claim. Chief UN arms inspector Hans Blix reports no evidence of renewed chemical or biological weapons programs in Iraq.

2003: UN inspectors find evidence of Iraqi violations of ballistic missile range limits, and begin to destroy missiles. Bush Administration not satisfied with extent of UN inspection. Just prior to U.S.-U.K. invasion of Iraq, UN orders inspectors out of country. After invasion, U.S. contends it will hunt for Weapons of Mass Destruction on its own, and finds none. As a member state of the UN Security Council, Syria proposes a WMD-Free Zone in the Middle East, which the U.S. rejects.

2004: During the First Battle of Fallujah, U.S. forces use white phosphorus artillery shells (intended for aerial illumination) as an incendiary weapon against Iraqi insurgents, killing and injuring many civilians. Pentagon finally admits in 2013 its use of white phosphorus as a weapon in Fallujah. Environmental justice protests in Anniston, Alabama oppose incineration of chemical weapons in populated area.

2007: Al-Qaeda in Mesopotamia carries out chlorine gas tank bombings in Iraqi civil war. White phosphorus train derails in Ukraine, contaminating 90 sq km.

2008: Israel uses white phosphorus shells during its three-week war against Palestinians in the Gaza Strip. U.S. government employee suspected in 2001 anthrax attacks commits suicide.

2009: Taliban and U.S. forces accuse each other of using white phosphorus as weapons. Rebels in Yemen accuse Saudi warplanes of dropping white phosphorus.

2011: Some news sources report white phosphorus use by NATO forces in Libya. Four militia members arrested in Georgia for plotting to use ricin to attack politicians, media, and the IRS.

2012: U.S. has closed 7 of 9 chemical weapons depots and destroyed 90 percent of its stockpiles, to meet the provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention it signed in 1993. Israel hits UNRWA compound in Gaza City with white phosphorus; announces the following year that it will stop using white phosphorus weapons.

2013: Actress allegedly mails ricin mailed to the President and other U.S. leaders. In January, UK issues licenses to export chemicals to Syria that could be used to make sarin; licenses revoked when sanctions begin against Syria in July. Syrian government and rebels trade accusations of using sarin in April and August. Doctors Without Borders documents 355 killed in August sarin attack in Ghouta area; Secretary of State John Kerry claims that Syrian government is responsible for killing 1,429 Syrians. UK declines to back military strikes on Syria; France, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and Israel back U.S. military action.

Dr. Zoltan Grossman is a Professor of Geography and Native Studies at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, and earned his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin.

1300 Years Of Islamic History In 3 Minutes

List Of Muslim Empires and Dynasties

Regional Empires

Saudi Arabia:

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE)
Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
Mahra Sultanate (774–present)
Hamdanid dynasty (890–1004)
Bani Assad (961–1163)
Numayrids (990–1081 AD) (Western Iraq)[1]
Marwanid (990–1085)
Uqaylid Dynasty (992–1169)
Artuqids (11th–12th century)
Burid dynasty (1104–1154)
Mirdasids (1024–1080)
Banu ‘Ammar (1071–1109) Tripoli, Lebanon[2]
Zengid dynasty (1127–1250)
Ayyubid dynasty (1171–1341)
Baban (1649–1850)
Alawite State (1920–1936)
Hashemite Dynasty of Iraq (1921–1958)
Hashemite Dynasty of Jordan (1921–present)
Rashidun Caliphate (632–661 CE)
Ziyadid dynasty (819–1018)
Sharif of Mecca (864–1496)
Banu Ukhaidhir (865–1066)
Rassids (893–1970 AD)
Sharif of Mecca (967–1925)
Sulaihid State (1047–1138)
Banu ZARIE (Makarama) (1083–1200)[3][4][5]
Banu Hatem Alhmdanyen (1098–1174)[6][7][8][9]
Banu Masud (Makarama) (1093–1150) from Yemen[10]
Ayyubid dynasty (1174–1341)
Rasulid (1229–1454)
Kathiri (1395–1967)
Jabrids (15th–16th century)
Tahiride (1454–1526)
Sultanate of Oman (751–present)
Qawasim Dynasty (1727–present)
Qarmatians (900–1073)
Uyunid dynasty (1076–1240)
Usfurids (1253–1320 century)
Jarwanid dynasty (1305–1487)[11]
Sultanate of Lahej (1728–1744/1839)
Mahra Sultanate (18th century–1967)
Emirate of Diriyah (1744–1818)
House of Saud (1744–present)
House of Al-Sabah (1752–present)
Al Nahyan family (1761–present)
Ajman (18th Century–present)
Qawasim Dynasty (18th century–present)
Umm al-Quwain (1775–present)
Al Khalifa family (1783–present)
Emirate of Nejd (1818–1891)
Sultanate of Muscat and Oman (1820–1979)
Sultanate of Zanzibar
House of Thani (1825–present)
Al Maktoum (1833–present)
Emirate of Jabal Shammar (1836–1921)
Upper Yafa (19th century–1967)
Aden Protectorate (1869–1969)
Sharqi Dynasty (1876–present)
Qu’aiti (1902–1967)
Emirate of Beihan (1903–1967)
Kingdom of Hejaz (1916–1925)
Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (1918–1962)
Mandatory Iraq (1920–1932)
Sultanate of Nejd (1921–1926)
Emirate of Transjordan (1921–1946)
Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz (1926–1932)
Kingdom of Iraq (1932–1958)
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1946–present)
Arab Federation (1958)
Federation of Arab Emirates of the South (1959–1962)
Federation of South Arabia (1962–1967)
Protectorate of South Arabia (1963–1967)

Iranian Plateau and South Caucasus:

Shirvanshah (799–1579 CE)
Dulafid dynasty (early 9th century–897)
Samanid dynasty (819–999)
Tahirid dynasty (821–873)
Saffarid dynasty (861–1003)
Alavids (864–929)
Sajids (889–929)
Ziyarid dynasty (928–1043)
Farighunid (late 9th–early 11th centuries)
Ma’danids (late 9th–11th centuries)
Ormus (10th–17th centuries)
Buyid dynasty (934–1062)
Sallarid (942–979)
Shaddadid (951–1199)
Rawadid (955–1071)
Hasanwayhid (959–1015)
Ghaznavids (963–1187)
Marwanid (990–1085)
Annazid (990–1116)
Hadhabani (11th century)
Seljuq dynasty (11th–14th centuries)
Ismaili State of Alamut(Iran) (1090–1256)
Ghurids (1148–1215)
Hazaraspids (1148–1424)
Khorshidi dynasty (1155–1597)
Mihrabanids (1236–1537)
Ilkhanate (1256–1335)
Sarbadars (1332–1386)
Jalayirids (1335–1432)
Chupanids (1335–1357)
Injuids (1335–1357)
Muzaffarids of Iran (1335–1393)
Timurid dynasty (1370–1526)
Kara Koyunlu (1375–1468)
Ak Koyunlu (1378–1508)
Musha’sha’iyyah (1436–1729)
Safavid dynasty (1501–1736)
Khanate of Erevan (1604–1828)
Quba Khanate (1680–1816)
Hotaki dynasty (1709–1738)
Talysh Khanate (1747–1826)
Durrani Empire (1747–1826)
Baku Khanate
Afsharid dynasty (1736–1796)
Shaki Khanate (1743–1819)
Ganja khanate (1747–1804)
Karabakh Khanate (1747–1822)
Khanate of Nakhichevan (1747–1828)
Shirvan Khanate (1748–1820)
Zand dynasty (1750–1794)
Qajar dynasty (1794–1925)
Barakzai Dynasty (1826–1973)
Pahlavi dynasty (1925–1979)

Central Asia and China:

Kara-Khanid Khanate (840–1212 CE)
Al Muhtaj (10th–early 11th centuries)
Khwārazm-Shāh dynasty (1077–1231)
Kartids (1231–1389)
Timurid dynasty (1370–1526)
Kazakh Khanate (1456–1731)
Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785)
Mughal Empire (1526–1857)
Khanate of Khiva (1511–1920)
Khanate of Kokand (1709–1876)
Jahangiri (Gabari) Dynasty (1200–1531)

South Asia:

Soomra Dynasty, Soomra (1026–1351 CE)
House of Theemuge (1166–1388)
Jahangiri(Gabari) Dynasty (1200–1531)
Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) (1206–1290)
Khilji dynasty (1290–1320)
Tughlaq Dynasty (1321–1398)
Samma Dynasty (1335–1520)
Sayyid Dynasty (1339–1561)
Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1342–1487)
Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1527)
Faruqi dynasty (1382–1601)
Hilaalee dynasty (1388–1558)
Muzaffarid dynasty of Gujarat (1391–1734)
Sharqi Dynasty (1394–1479)
Kingdom of Mysore (1399–1947)
Bahmani (1400–1600)
Malwa Sultanate (1401–1561)
Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451)
Lodi Dynasty (1451–1526)
Bidar Sultanate (1489–1619)
Berar Sultanate (1490–1572)
Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494–1538)
Arghun Dynasty (late 15th–16th centuries)
Mughal Empire (1526–1857)
Adil Shahi dynasty (1527–1686)
Suri Dynasty (1540–1556)
Arakkal (1545–18th century)
Utheemu dynasty (1632–1692)
Khan of Kalat (1666–1958)
Nawab of the Carnatic (1690–1801)
Isdhoo dynasty (1692–1704)
Dhiyamigili dynasty (1704–1759)
Nawab of Bhopal (1723–1947)
Nawab of Rampur (1719–1947)
Nawab of Awadh (1722–1858)
Hyderabad State (1724–1948)
Babi dynasty (1735–1947)
Nawab of Bengal (1717–1880)
Huraa dynasty (1759–1968)
Tonk (princely state) (1798–1947)
Dominion of Pakistan (1947–1956)
Islamic Republic of Pakistan (1956–present)
Republic of Maldives (1965–present)
Peoples Republic of Bangladesh (1971–present)
Khairpur (princely state)
Nagar (princely state)
Hunza (princely state)
Bahawalpur (princely state)
Mirpur (princely state)
Kalat (princely state)
Las Bela (princely state)
Makran (princely state)
Kharan (princely state)
Amb (princely state)
Chitral (princely state)
Dir (princely state)
Hunza (princely state)
Jandol (princely state)
Nagar (princely state)
Phulra (princely state)
Swat (princely state)
Yasin (princely state)
Gilgit (princely state)
Shanig perthawar (princely state)

South-East Asia:

Perlak (mid-9th century-13th century)
Samudera Pasai Sultanate (1128–1285 CE).[12]
Bandar Kalibah.[13]
Moira Malaya.[14]
Kanto Kambar.[15]
Kedah Sultanate (1136–present)
Pasai (1267–15th century)
Brunei (14th century–present)
Sultanate of Malacca (1402–1511)
Pahang Sultanate (mid-15th century–present)
Sultanate of Sulu (1450–1936)
Sultanate of Ternate (1465–present)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1518)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
Kingdom of Maynila (1500’s–1571)
Mataram Sultanate (1500’s – 1700’s)
Pattani Kingdom (1516–1771)
Sultanate of Maguindanao (1520–c. 1800)
Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Perak Sultanate (1528–present)
Kingdom of Pajang (1568–1586)
Sultanate of Terengganu (1725–present)
Selangor Sultanate (mid-18th century–present)
Surakarta Sunanate (1745–present)
Yogyakarta Sultanate (1755–present)
Kingdom of Aman (1485–1832)
Palembang (1550–1823)
Sultanate of Lanao (Pat a pangampong sa Ranao) (15th Century-Present) Mindanao


Danishmends (1071–1178 CE)
Mengujekids (1071–1277)
Saltukids (1072–1202)
Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307)
Ahlatshahs (1100–1207)
Ayyubid dynasty (1174–1341)
Chobanids (1227–1309)
Karamanids (c. 1250–1487)
Pervâneoğlu (1261–1322)
Menteşe (c. 1261–1424)
Ahis (c. 1380–1362)
Hamidids (c. 1280–1374)
Ottoman Empire (1299–1923)
Ladik (c. 1300–1368)
Isfendiyarids (c. 1300–1461)
Teke (1301–1423)
Sarukhanids (1302–1410)
Karasids (1303–1360)
Aydinids (1307–1425)
Eretnids (1328–1381)
Dulkadirids (1348–c. 1525)
Ramadanids (1352–1516)
Hatay Devleti (1938–1939)

North Africa:

Egypt and Sudan

Main dynasties:

Tulunids (868–905)
Ikhshidid dynasty (on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, 935–969)
Fatimid dynasty (based in Ifriqiya 909–969, based in Egypt 969–1171)
Ayyubid dynasty (based in Egypt 1171–1250, based in Syria 1250–1341)
Mamluks of Egypt (Bahri Mamluks 1250–1382, Burji Mamluks 1382–1517)
Khedivian dynasty (1805–1952)

Independent kingdoms in Egyptian and Sudanese soils:

Banu Kanz (1004–1412)[17]
Sultanate of Darfur (1603–1874)

Ifriqiya (Eastern Maghreb)

Ifriqiyan dynasties:

Aghlabids (on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, 800–909)
Fatimid dynasty (based in Ifriqiya 909–969, based in Egypt 969–1171)
Zirid dynasty (on behalf of the Fatimid Caliph 973–1048, independent 1048–1148)
Hafsid dynasty (1229–1574)
Muradid dynasty (1613–1705)
Husainid Dynasty (on behalf of the Ottoman Caliph 1705–1889, independent 1956–1957)

Independent kingdoms on Ifriqiyan soil

Muhallabid principality (771–793 CE)

Libyan dynasties (after 1551)

Karamanli dynasty (on behalf of the Ottoman Caliph, 1711–1835)
Senussi dynasty (in Cyrenaica 1918–1951, Kings of Libya 1951–1969)

Maghreb al-Aksa (Western Maghreb)

Moroccan dynasties:

Idrisid dynasty (788–974)
Almoravid dynasty (1040–1147)
Almohad dynasty (1147–1248)
Marinid dynasty (1244–1465)
Wattasid dynasty (1472–1554)
Saadi Dynasty (1554–1659)
Alaouite Dynasty (1666–present)

Independent kingdoms on Moroccan soil

Emirate of Nekor (710–1019 CE)
Barghawata kingdom (744–1058 CE)
Emirate of Sijilmasa (771–821 CE)
Independent kingdoms on Algerian soil
Rustamid principality (776–909)
Ifranid dynasty (790–1066)
Hammadid dynasty (1008–1152)
Ziyyanid dynasty (1235–1556)

Horn Of Africa

Sultanate of Mogadishu (10th–16th centuries)
Ifat Sultanate (1285–1415)
Warsangali Sultanate (1298–present)
Adal Sultanate (c. 1415–1555)
Walashma Dynasty (14th–16th centuries)
Ajuran Empire (14th–17th centuries)
Aussa Sultanate (16th century–present)
Emirs of Harar (1647–1887)
Mudaito dynasty (1734–present)
Geledi sultanate (18th–19th centuries)
Majeerteen Sultanate (mid-18th century–early 20th century)
Kingdom of Gomma (early 19th century–1886)
Kingdom of Jimma (1830–1932)
Kingdom of Gumma (1840–1902)
Sultanate of Hobyo (19th century–1925)
Dervish State (1896–1920)

Southeast Africa

Kilwa Sultanate (957–1513 CE)[18]
Pate Sultanate (1203–1870)
Sennar (sultanate) (1523–1821)
Sultans on the Comoros
Sultanate of Zanzibar (1856–1964)
Wituland (1858–1923)

Central & West Africa

Kingdom of Nekor (710–1019 CE)
Za Dynasty in Gao (11th century–1275)
Sayfawa dynasty (1075–1846)
Songhai Empire (c. 1340–1591)
Bornu Empire (1396–1893)
Kingdom of Baguirmi (1522–1897)
Dendi Kingdom (1591–1901)
Sultanate of Damagaram (1731–1851)
Imamate of Futa Toro (1776–1861)
Imamate of Futa Jallon (1727–1896)
Sokoto Caliphate (1804–1903)
Toucouleur Empire (1836–1890)



Aghlabid Sicily (827–909) CE
Kalbids (948–1053)

Caliphate of Córdoba (756–1017 CE, 1023–1031)
Taifa of Alpuente (1009–1106)
Taifa of Badajoz (1009–1151)
Taifa of Morón (1010–1066)
Taifa of Toledo (1010–1085)
Taifa of Tortosa (1010–1099)
Taifa of Arcos (1011–1145)
Taifa of Almería (1010–1147)
Taifa of Denia (1010–1227)
Taifa of Valencia (1010–1238)
Taifa of Murcia (1011–1266)
Taifa of Albarracín (1012–1104)
Taifa of Zaragoza (1013–1110)
Taifa of Granada (1013–1145)
Taifa of Carmona (1013–1150)
Hammudid dynasty (1016–1073)
Taifa of Santa María de Algarve (1018–1051)
Taifa of Mallorca (1018–1203)
Taifa of Lisbon (1022–1093)
Taifa of Seville (1023–1091)
Taifa of Niebla (1023–1262)
Taifa of Córdoba (1031–1091)
Taifa of Mértola (1033–1151)
Taifa of Algeciras (1035–1058)
Taifa of Ronda (1039–1065)
Taifa of Silves (1040–1151)
Taifa of Málaga (1073–1239)
Taifa of Molina (c. 1080’s–1100)
Taifa of Lorca (1228–1250)
Taifa of Menorca (1228–1287)
Emirate of Granada (1228–1492)

Eastern Europe & Russia:

Volga Bulgaria (7th century–1240s CE)
Emirate of Crete (820s–961)
Avar Khanate (early 13th–19th century)
Khanate of Kazan (1438–1552)
Crimean Khanate (1441–1783)
Nogai Horde (1440s–1634)
Qasim Khanate (1452–1681)
Astrakhan Khanate (1466–1556)
Khanate of Sibir (1490–1598)
Pashalik of Scutari (1757–1831)
House of Zogu (1928–1939)


Historical powers
Timeline of Middle Eastern History
Muslim conquests
Muslim history
Global Empire
List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
List of Shi’a Muslim dynasties
Muslim World
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
List of Muslim Countries
Islamic Golden Age

[Above info via: Wikipedia]